Growth in the use of computational optical technology for biomedical research and health care has been explosive. New applications are made possible by emerging technologies in lasers, optical devices, fiber optics, spectroscopy, and imaging, all of which are being applied to medical research, diagnostics, and therapy. This book covers recent discoveries and research in the field by some of the best inventors and researchers in the world. It presents useful computational methods and applications used in optical biomedical spectroscopy and imaging. The book also discusses future applications, directions, opportunities, and challenges in technical industry, academia, and government.