This interdisciplinary book analyses the origins of biological warfare planning and preparation up to the end of World War II. In the period between World War I and World War II, growing understanding of the propagation of disease lead to the fear that potential enemies might be developing biological weapons. Ultimately, several counries developed major biological warfare programmes during World War II. The relevance of these programmes to contemporary concerns is addressed. The World War II experiences related to biological weapons reinforce the arguments for adoption of a verification protocol to strengthen the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.