This text will be a revision of the current textbook titled, "Wildland Recreation; Ecology and Management," Wiley, 1998. It will include new chapters and revision of the wildland recreation/ecology literature. As such, it will examine the effects of outdoor recreation activities and policies on biophysical components of ecosystems such as soil, water, wildlife, fisheries, and plant communities. Chapters will provide a critical analysis of topics to understand the state-of-knowledge and to identify critical gaps in the literature. In addition the book will also examine and evaluate strategies for avoiding/mitigating and managing recreation impacts, and the consequences of resource impacts on the visitor/tourist experience. 1) Identification and clarification of basic theories and research generalizations of wildland recreation/ecology and important related theories in social and ecological disciplines 2) A critical analysis of the body of research in wildland recreation ecology and identification of critical needs and knowledge gaps 3) An examination of outdoor recreation as an agent of change in natural areas and identification of the general effects of recreation of soil, vegetation, wildlife, water and air quality. 4) An examination of the effectiveness of visitor management strategies at minimizing resource change. 5) An examination of recreation resource tolerance, resilience, and restoration concerning resource impacts.